There are two kinds of structures in the New Territories. 1/ Structures with building status; 2/ Structures without building status. There are two kinds of land status in the NT, too : 1/ Government land; 2/ land with private ownership. Look at the following table : With building status no building status Structures on not discuss here T/S Government land Structures on permanent Structures T/s Private land History : When the British took over NT dated back in 1898, they did a survey to recognize all structures in the NT. So long the person they found accepting the British rule and willing to pay Government rent, the structures they found were registered in their names in the then Block Crown Lease (BCL), now called the Block Government Lease (BGL), with descriptions of the uses they found at that time, together with a plan showing the land and structures called the Demarcation District Sheet (DD sheet). After the preparation of the BCL and the DD sheet, when people wanted to erect new temporary structures, Government would grant “Permits” or “Licenses” to them to allow them to erect the T/SS. On Government Land, the permits were termed Crown Land Permits (CLP); on private land, the permits were called Modification of tenancies (MOT). That system had been used for quite a long time until the year of 1976. The then New Territories Administration (NTA) introduced the concept of Short Term Tenancies and Short Term Waivers to replace the CLLs and MOTs. The existing CLLs were to be converted to STTs; and the existing MOTs were to be converted to STWs, under a four-years conversion program. The Target was to cancel all CLLs and MOTs and replace them to STTs and STWs. The process had been long and not too successful. Even now, CLLs and MOTs are existing in the NT. However, all new applications, if allowed, are to be granted by way of STTs and STWs. All through history, people erect structures for their private use on needs, there always are structures erected without any legal coverage. Around 1964, Government considered that illegal structure were out of control, they did a survey to record the illegal structures with a view to assess the housing needs for the coming 10 years. They painted numbers and descriptions of what they found on the structures and the so called “Yellow Number Structures” were born. Later around 1976, they did another similar survey. This time the numbers and descriptions were painted with red colour, so the so called “Red Number Structures” also appeared in HK’s history. The meaning of the “Numbers and Descriptions” only meant what Government found at the time of painting and Government would not demolish the structures at that time.
50.4 kinds of structures in the NT
There are 4 kinds of structures in the NT, they are : 1/ Structures covered by the Block Crown Lease now called the Block Government Lease. They may be described as “House”, “Building”, “Mat Shed”, “boat Hut”, “temple”, “nunnery”, “latrine”. The redevelopment condition is governed by the “BCL”. 2/ Structures covered by “New Grants”. Whenever a lot is granted by Government to members of the public, Government issues a particular lease called “New Grant” which determines the development conditions of the lot. Pre-war New Grants were usually covered by a notice in the Government Gazette, e.g. GN365, GN364,GN570 etc. Post war New Grants are covered by individual leases. 3/ Structures covered by the small house policy introduced in 1972. According to the individual leases of the small house grants, the conditions of the grants are mainly divided into three kinds: a/ The building licenses, with a five-year non assignment clause, premium must be paid to delete this clause within 5 years after the issue of the certificate of compliance. b/ The private treaty grants, with the life non-assignment clause, premium must be paid any time after the issue of the certificate of compliance. c/ The private treaty grants on government built platform, with a life non-assignment clause, assignment of the lot can only be done after 3 years from the time of the issue of the certificate of compliances. A full market value of premium should also be paid ant time after the three years mentioned. 4/ Temporary structure with no building status, they may be 1/ on Crown land licenses CLL ; 2/ on modification of tenancies MOT 3/ on Short term tenancies; STT; on Short term waivers STW, on squatter control numbers, red numbers and yellow numbers. They are all temporary structures, and subject to cancellation of the relevant status any time without compensation.
51.important ordinances concerning land
Some important ordinances concerning about land 1/ The New Territories Ordinance Cap 97 2/ The Resumption Ordinance Cap 124 3/ The Road Ordinance Cap 370 4/ The Railway Ordinance Cap 519 5/ The Land Ordinance Cap 28 6/ The Town Planning Ordinance Cap 131 7/ The Building Ordinance Cap 123 8/ The Government Rights (Re-entry and Vesting Remedies) Ordinance Cap 126 9/ The Building ( Application to the NT ) Ordinance Cap 121 10/ The Heung Yee Kuk Ordinance Cap1097
1/ 中國以農立國，香港新界在英政府接收的時候，是一個農業社會，傳統人情風俗習慣，以農業社會及漁業社會為基礎，經過政權轉移及百多年的時間洗禮，原來的傳統人情風俗習慣，大部份受到當權者及地區人士的尊重。 2/ 男性社會：歷史的原因，新界社會是一個男性的社會，先人過世，遺產傳子不傳女；管理產業，亦是以男性為主，村長的選舉，都是男性主導。 3/ 新界五大氏族：是鄧氏、文氏、廖氏、彭氏及侯氏(依人口排行)。 他們都在宋明期間移居現時香港的 …. 侯氏家族在新界有逾九百四十年歷史。 4/ 客家人： 香港原屬廣東省寶安縣，是客家人的傳統聚居地之一。香港仍未開埠至1898年英國租借新九龍及「新界」前，客家人已在今天的香港立足多年，屬香港原居民之一。在新界631個原住民村落裏（例如赤柱村、荃灣三棟屋），以客家人為主的村落有341個，佔54%。根據2012年的《中國語言地圖集》，香港客家語被歸類為粵台片梅惠小片。。 2010年，香港客家原居民約為20到30萬左右。假若包括客家原居民和非原居的客家人，則香港的客家人約有100萬人。雖然客家人（包括原居民及非原居民的客家人）在港數量不少，但現時多數是中、老年香港客家人仍使用客家語，不少香港客家新一代都不會講客家話，或者只懂聽不懂講。這是由於1970年代初，來自全球的中國內地移民帶來了不同的漢語方言（比如廣州話、四邑話、客家話、潮汕話、閩南話、福建話、上海話、吳語等），港英政府遂選擇了粵語作爲香港華人的統一中文口語。在香港，現時以客家話為母語的僅有62,340人，佔香港人口的0.9%；報稱通曉客家話的香港人，亦只有259,738人，佔香港人口的4.7%。以上數據都顯示以客家語為母語的香港人口比例正逐年下降，情況不容樂觀 5/ 祖、堂、會等的設立及運作：notes by Tim Yuen 6/ 太平清醮：醮是禱神的祭禮，原來的意思是「祭神」，道教盛行後，乃逐漸發展成為由道士、僧人為媒介向神祝禱、禳除災祟和許願酬謝的祭禮儀式。自南北朝開始，歷代朝廷多有建醮的祭儀，尤其盛行於元、明兩代，主要目的是祈求風調雨順、國泰民安。打醮一般是定期舉行，時限卻不一，有的如大嶼山大澳每30年一次，長州則每年舉行一次。 醮的種類很多，如祈求或感謝神明庇佑的清醮，稱為祈安醮；為慶祝寺廟或其他建築物落成的「慶成醮」；祭拜瘟神的叫「瘟醮」；超度死於水火亡魂的是「水醮」或「火醮」。此外，尚有為神明祝壽的「神誕醮」和佛教盂蘭盆會混合而成的「中元醮」等。香港大部分的醮則屬祈安醮。 經過長期的演變，香港的打醮形式和規模已逐漸標準化，由籌備至完成往往需時一年；醮場一般建有由棚搭建的醮壇和粵劇戲棚，醮場並有攤檔售賣各種驅邪的吉祥物。眾多地區的打醮習俗中，以每年舉行一次的長洲太平清醮較為人所熟悉，當中的重頭戲如「會景巡遊」，即由小孩扮演飄色扮演古代人物巡遊，以及由各武術館表演的舞龍、舞獅等每年均吸引大批中外遊客及傳媒採訪參觀。 7/ 盆菜：盆菜是香港新界的圍村原居民的傳統食物，已有數百年的歷史，是一種雜燴菜式。傳統的盆菜用木盆或銻盆盛載。每逢喜慶節日，例如新居入伙、祠堂開光或新年點燈，新界的鄉村均會舉行盆菜宴。 7.1) 器具︰盛載的器皿漸漸改以銅盆、銻盆、錫箔紙盆等金屬器皿代替笨重的木盆，甚至用塑膠盆來盛載；筷子；碗 7.2) 食材︰盆菜的食物會按一定的次序一層疊一層地由上至下排好。上層會放些較名貴和需要先吃的東西，例如雞及大蝦；最下層則放些容易吸收汁液的材料，例如豬皮和蘿蔔。 第一層：乾煎蝦碌、油雞 第二層：炸門鱔、手打鯪魚球 第三層：冬菇、蝦乾等 第四層：圍頭豬肉或南乳炆豬腩 第五層：枝竹、魷魚 第六層：蘿蔔、豬皮等 7.3) 吃法︰吃盆菜的時候，會由上至下逐層逐層吃下去。 7.4) 象徵︰食用者會一起把盆內食物倒置，將它反來覆去，盡享各層味美的材料，寄意同心協力和時來運轉。盆菜宴席既經濟又方便；好友共聚餐既簡單又快捷。盆菜，現今幾已成為香港飲食文化的標誌、食出氣氛、食出感情！ 8/ 天后誕：
舊屋，顧名思義，是一些已經用了一段時間的屋宇，而這屋宇的主人覺得這舊屋已經不符合自己的需要，而又有資金重建，重建後的屋宇，亦可以滿足自己的需要，便有必要重建。 重建第一個原則，就是要搞清楚有關舊屋，有沒有建築權或屋宇身份(building right, or building status) ，有建築權或有屋宇身份的舊屋，是在該舊屋最早期政府批出時，批地契約上，列清楚有屋宇的身份，又或者在批地後一直到現在，某段時間內，政府因收了批租人補足地價，而修改了契約條款，容許該地有建築權，成為有屋宇身份的地段。 下列四類屋宇，並沒有建築權或屋宇身份(building right, or building status): 1/ 牌照屋 ：(Government Land License, Modification of tenancy, Government Land Permit ) 這些都是政府按上世紀農業的需要，在新界批出的農用屋宇牌照，每年繳交微量的牌照費，幫助新界農業的發展。這些屋宇沒有建築權或屋宇身份，政府可以任何時間壹個月通知取消牌照，牌照亦不可轉讓別人，取消牌照及清拆屋宇時，清楚列明沒有補償。 這些牌照屋可以申請重建，但要面積、用途都要一樣，經申請批准後才可重建。 2/短期租約屋或短期放寬執行地契條款牌屋 ( Short Term Tenancies STT and Short Term Waivers STW ) 這些屋宇的身份，跟牌照屋差不多，只是政府批出短期租約（政府地）或短期放寬（私人地）的時候，用途可以是農業或非農業用途，而租金或放寬費都是市場價，經政府估價師估算定而收取。 這些屋宇沒有建築權或屋宇身份，政府可以任何時間叁個月通知取消短期租約或短期放寬執行地契條款牌。取消牌照及清拆屋宇時，清楚列明沒有補償。 這些(STT, STW)屋宇可以申請重建，但要跟足租約或放寬牌條款處理。 3/黃字或紅字屋宇 (Yellow Number or Red Number Structures) 這些是容忍屋宇，政府在懷疑非法僭建屋宇當眼地方用黃油或紅油，寫上屋宇號碼、面積、用途、物料，意思是當時發現這屋宇，暫時不拆。這個暫時不拆，就暫時到今時今日。這些屋宇如果有需要重建，就必須按紅或黃號碼列明的面積、用途、物料重建。 4/無身份屋宇，這些屋宇的存在，大部分是政府的疏忽而存在，如被發現，有必要拆掉，更不可以重建。 重建第二個原則，就是要搞清楚有關舊屋的重建數據，如面積，高度，用途等。 重建第三個原則，就是要搞清楚有關舊屋的重建手續，這個比較複雜： A/ 如建築面積大過700平方呎，要入則屋宇處批則； B/ 如建築面積少過700平方呎，可向地政處申請豁免紙三張，一張是屋宇本身，一張是地盤平整，一張是去水。 C/ 如地盤平整，或去水因地形關系，出不到豁免紙，亦要 入則屋宇處批則。 D/ 所有重建申請，地政處要咨詢政府所有有關部門的意見，如意見負面，則有必要與有關部門溝通，解決問題。 E/ 所有重建申請，地政處要咨詢當地附近的村民，給予14天的時間反對，如有反對，亦要溝通處理。 F/ 重建完工後，要申請一張無反對入住信件，收到後才完成重建過程。
55.The Small House Policy of Hong Kong
10 Basic rules for small house developments The Small House Policy of Hong Kong is a policy in granting private houses to indigenous villagers. According to this policy, male villagers attaining the age of 18 can apply to government for the grant of a small house license or grant. The criteria are : 1/ The village must be a recognized village in the new territories in HK. 2/ The villager must be a descendent of a villager along the male line recognized dated back in 1898 when the British took over HK. 3/ The villager must be over 18 years old. 4/ There are two methods of getting a small house grant from government by: 4a/ The applicant must have private land planned for village use in his own village. 4b/ The applicant can apply for a piece of Government land, if there is such suitable land available. 5/ This right is a once-in-a-life-time right. If a small house grant is granted to a certain villager, he cannot apply for another one in his life time. 6/ Subject to no valid objections from other local villagers. 7/ The small house to be granted must not exceed 700 square feet in area and cannot be higher than 27 feet high , and not more than 3 stories to be built. 8/ The small house is granted on a concessionary basis, so that the grantee cannot sell the small house to other people unless full premium is paid to Government to allow assignment. 9/ For small houses granted on originally private land belonging to the applicant, a 5-year non assignment clause is imposed. Meaning that after 5 years from the date of the issue of certificate of compliance of the grant condition, the villager can freely assign his house to any body. Within these 5 years, if he wants to assign, he has to pay premium to be assessed by Government, before he can assign. The premium payable is subject to an independent valuation. 10/ For small houses granted on originally Government land, the assignment clause on the grant condition is for life. The 5 years non-assignment clause is changed to a life-non-assignment clause. As a matter of fact, many small house developers are JV with villagers to build small houses according to this small house policy. The developers provide the suitable land, and the building cost, and contracting with the villagers using their once-in-a-life-time right to apply to Government for the small house grants. We are doing exactly the same thing for the Tai Po and other small house projects. The beauties of these projects are that the investment is small, the market risk is small, the political risk is small. We may expect some administration risk due to the JV terms with the villagers. Because all the material time for the project, the land and the application is under the villager’s name, the developer is only having an equity with some very strict and clear contracts terms with the villagers, which are to be enforced should the villager is not co-operating with the developer. However, it is not common practice that the villagers are not co-operating with the developers. And in our case, the villagers are also having stake in the development, I don’t expect any problem with the villager, they would like to see the completion of the project too. So the project can be considered as a good project except that the timing is a bit long. It would take about 3 years to reap any dividend for the investment.